The importance of genetic fit between the crop and the environment cannot be overstated. The structure of the cannabis plant, the characteristics of the synthesis of cannabinoids, the yields and the resistance to pests have a great influence on the inherited potentials. Understanding the effect of the underlying genotype on phenotypic expression allows commercial breeders to select varieties that will exhibit higher yields in their specific production environments.

Coevolution with human pollinators

Cannabis is one of the oldest crops. In its harsh state, cannabis has a very limited tendency to produce THC. Several millennia of coevolution and prehistoric human selection have been rich in THC and have given rise to a diversity of local varieties, from which modern strains have developed. This time, the cannabis plant has used its relationship with humans to spread around the world from Central Asia.

From the point of view of germplasm development, cannabis is notable among horticultural crops. The ban set aside cannabis in the twentieth century. from the tremendous advances made in plant growth in the twentieth century. Clandestine cultivation and trade, and the cross-breeding nature of this plastic species, have affected the cultural diversity of the polyhybrids currently being produced. This germplasm allows for a wide range of genetic diversity and function.

Commercial developments

Today, the flood of economic interest in this species has led to growth developments that obscure the early stages of cannabis germplasm development. Although there are few registered or actual growth drug varieties, genetic research has shed light on potential advances in cannabis productivity in the near future.

Triploid plants have been created that are resistant to pollination of typical diploid cannabis plants. This is an important development for outdoor and greenhouse cannabinoid farmers who may be affected by increasing pollen pollution as a result of the expansion of cannabis fiber and oil production.

Oregon researchers have recently identified a single gene that (reportedly) provides complete resistance G. ambrosiae strain (PM) is the strain responsible for many infections. This gene is primarily inherited and can be identified by a single nucleotide protein (SNP). This SNP serves as a genetic marker that can be used to genomically evaluate plant material at any stage of growth to determine susceptibility to PM disease.

It is important to find that PM resistance can be controlled by a single gene. Many resistance traits are inherited horizontally in many gene loci, and the proliferation and increase of these gene expressions may require generations of work. The dominant inheritance allows a plant with two copies of the PM resistance gene to hybridize to a sensitive plant, with all F1 offspring showing resistance to PM disease. These inherited traits have a significant impact on the time it takes for these improvements to be available on commercially viable F1 crops.


Phenotyping is the process of selecting organisms according to the physical characteristics that appear in a given environment. This process requires careful testing and data analysis, sharing experiences and intuitions. Intellectual investments and facilities and a clear plan with predetermined scoring measures and goals are necessary for success.

The largest possible number of plant candidates should be evaluated in several rehearsals to select the most valuable production crops. An important component of effective testing is the elimination of many people at the beginning of the process. Knowing the value traits in the early stages of development allows them to die in time. Among the criteria that can be used for early selection is chromosomal analysis for the germination and immediate removal of male plants and the assessment of seedling strength.

In general, several vegetative traits can be assumed to be beneficial to greenhouse farmers. These may be quite different criteria for internal production environments. Plants with narrow leaf boards, intermediate inner length, and strong stems will allow for airflow and inflorescence support for the benefit of work efficiency. For many cropping systems, plants with low apical dominance (branched plants) will allow for efficient management and height management.

In order to assess the relative suitability of individual plants, it is necessary to minimize the spatial differences that must exist spatially in all crop environments. This can be achieved through efficient airflow design and random distribution of plants during trials.

Producers who invest the resources needed to select the best possible cultivars for their climate and market will receive dividends on plant health, quality, and yield. Cannabis enthusiasts should be encouraged by the variety of complex floral features that can be found. The future is so bright, we need to put on the tones!

Test parameters

Crop selection is key to the success of horticulture. Here is an example of the design of a typical phenotyping experiment to allow the selection of cultivars. This example is based on a plant with a 1,000-square-foot flowering space for phenotype testing, all plants grown from seed.

Test 1 (germination of 2,000 seeds)

  • 1,800 plants germinate with cotyledons submitted for chromosomal evaluation
  • When the males were cut, 900 pistillate plants were evaluated for structure and strength in four weeks
  • 500 selected pistil plants selected for transplanting to flowering banks
  • 50 plants have been removed based on the metric of the vegetative structure
  • 50 plants have been removed according to flower structure / distribution and philotaxis
  • 50 plants have been eliminated in the production environment due to high susceptibility to pests
  • 50 cultivars selected from 350 plant candidates based on post-harvest potency testing

Test 2 (10 clones multiplied for each of the 50 selected crops)

  • Crops are randomly distributed within the facility to minimize environmental fluctuations
  • Plants score between four and eight metrics in production
  • Five crops removed according to structure
  • Five cultivars have been removed based on susceptibility
  • Out of the 40 candidates selected based on performance, 10

The remaining ten crops represent .5% of the original germplasm and can be evaluated according to the garden and market value. The quantitative selection in Test 1 for the measurement of potency (cannabinoids and terpenes) must ensure that these cultivars are viable candidates for market acceptance. Growing staff will learn about the characteristics of other candidates and can provide valuable anecdotal information about their suitability for production.